Internal Capital Adequacy Assessment Process (ICAAP) – Overview and Core concepts

Capital Adequacy was the principal message of the Basel II framework.  However a static regulator driven capital adequacy measure was deemed insufficient to manage the risk profile and capital requirements of an active bank in today’s risk environment creating the need for an internal and invasive assessment of the capital profile of a bank.  Ideally such a measure would allocate and attribute risk capital to all significant sources of risk, stress test the results and keep the board informed of any expected or projected capital shortfall.

Under Pillar 2 of the Basel II Accord, Internal Capital Adequacy and Assessment Process (ICAAP for short) was introduced with exactly the same objectives.

Under ICAAP requirements a bank needs to have in place internal procedures and processes to ensure that it possesses adequate capital resources in the long term to cover all of its material risks. These processes and procedures together are known as the Internal Capital Adequacy and Assessment Process or ICAAP for short.

We first review the historical back ground behind the development of Basel II of which ICAAP is a part:

  • Internal Capital Adequacy and Assessment Process (ICAAP): Basel II – Background: Great Depression, Regulation Q, Basel I
  • Internal Capital Adequacy and Assessment Process (ICAAP): Basel II

We then review some of the requirements of the ICAAP process and consider the main sections of an ICAAP report. We also present an extract from a sample ICAAP report showing the Executive Summary and the Approaches used to quantify and aggregate risks.

  • ICAAP: Process Requirements: Purpose, Pre-requisites, Board of Director Responsibilities and Documentation
  • ICAAP: Assessment Requirements: Approach, Nature , Comparative View to MCR and Review Process
    Internal Capital Adequacy and Assessment Process (ICAAP): Report – main elements
  • ICAAP: Internal Capital Adequacy Assessment – Sample ICAAP report format and table of content

Under the Internal Capital Adequacy and Assessment Process (ICAAP) the bank will make use of internal models to assess, quantify and stress test risk drivers and factors and the amount of capital required to support them. We consider some of the building blocks in a modeling construction process and the risks involved in model building as well as ways to avoid those risks. This discussion is based on the paper “Model Risk” by Emanuel Derman (Goldman Sachs Quantitative Strategies Research Notes – April 1996).

  • Internal Capital Adequacy and Assessment Process (ICAAP): Modeling Building Process
  • Internal Capital Adequacy and Assessment Process (ICAAP): Model Risks
  • Internal Capital Adequacy and Assessment Process (ICAAP): Prevention and Limitation of Model Risks

In order to quantify credit risk for the internal ratings based approach of the Internal Capital Adequacy and Assessment Process (ICAAP) the bank would need to be able to calculate the probability of default (PD). We discuss one methodology of calculating PD which is based on historical behavioral data.

  • ICAAP Submissions: Probability of Default (PD) Calculation

One forward looking aspect of the Internal Capital Adequacy and Assessment Process (ICAAP) is  stress testing of all risk factors in order to arrive at the capital requirements for the worst case scenario. Stress testing also allows the bank to plan and prepare for unexpected situations that may arise in the future. We look at some of the stress tests that can be applied to credit, market and liquidity risk.

  • ICAAP Submission: Credit Risk: Stress Test: Non – Performing Loan (NPL) Stress Test
  • ICAAP Compliance: Credit Risk: Stress Test: Simple Sensitivity Analysis – Increase & Shift in NPL
  • ICAAP Compliance: Credit Risk: Stress Test: Simple Sensitivity Analysis – Fall in Forced Sale Value (FSV) of mortgaged collateral
  • ICAAP: Credit Risk: Stress Test: How to construct a Transition Matrix
  • ICAAP: Credit Risk: Stress Test: How to Determine Expected Classification Rates
  • ICAAP: Credit Risk: Stress Test: Profitability Analysis of a bank’s loan portfolio
  • ICAAP: Credit Risk: Stress Test: Transition Matrix Stress Test
  • ICAAP: Credit Risk: Stress Test: Profitability Analysis Stress Test
  • ICAAP: Stress Test: Market Risk
  • ICAAP: Stress Test: Liquidity Risk

Also see: An alternate approach for calculating Economic Capital using accounting data rather than the BIS guidelines using the difference between Expected and Unexpected Loss.

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