3mins read time On the other hand N(d1) will always be greater than N(d2) because in linking it with the contingent receipt of stock in the Black Scholes equation, N(d1) must not only account for the probability of exercise as given by N(d2) but must also account for the fact that exercise or rather receipt of stock on exercise is dependent on future value

3mins read time This road maps focuses on bootstrapping the zero curve and using the zero curve to calculate implied forward interest rates (forward curve). We then used the projected forward rates to price the swap rate for fixed to floating interest rate swap. A separate series of posts build on this material and extend its reach to pricing interest rate caps, interest rate floors, range accrual notes, commodity and equity linked notes.