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In the long term, if other rating agencies follow suit and challenge credit worthiness of the US, popular opinion suggests that the status of the dollar as the primary reserve currency will come under a fresh challenge. The actual likelihood of this happening is low and no one does a better job of presenting this argument than Professor Pettis at China Watch.
In the short run while US regulators have stated that there will be no regulatory capital impact on holding US treasuries, European and Asian regulators still have to issue an opinion on this event. The most likely reaction given what will happen on Monday is that ECB, Bank of Japan and a host of other regulators are likely to toe the line to avoid further roiling markets and increasing capital requirements for domestic banks